Bolin Seminars

Bolin Centre Seminars 
Research area 3 and Research Area 7


The value of multiple dataset calibration in hydrological modelling and its implication for hydropower production

Speaker: David C. Finger, Reykjavík University, Iceland
Time: Thursday 26 October, 12h15–13h15
Place: Tarfala room, Geoscience building

David C. Finger, Reykjavík University, Iceland

 

I will present case studies from Switzerland and Iceland and show how multiple datasets (e.g. discharge, snow cover images and glacier mass balances) can increase the consistency performance of hydrological models independently of model complexity. I will then show how the advantages of multiple dataset calibration can provide valuable results for hydropower operators. I will conclude the talk by demonstrating that the calibration method can also be used in ungauged areas and open new opportunities for water management in remote areas with limited data availability.

 

 

Welcome!

Welcome to the eighth seminar in the new Bolin Centre Seminar Series!
The series aims to provide an opportunity to learn about current research topics in the individual research areas of the Bolin Centre and to bring researchers together on a regular basis. We strive to trigger lively discussions and to facilitate both internal and external collaborations.

The host this time is Research Area 8  Biodiversity and climate

Long-term biodiversity-climate disequilibria – a macroecological perspective

Speaker: Prof. Jens-Christian Svenning, VILLUM Investigator, Carlsberg Foundation “Semper Ardens” Researcher, Ecoinformatics & Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Denmark
Time: December 4 at 13h00–14h00
Place: Ahlmannsalen

Prof. Jens-Christian Svenning, VILLUM Investigator,  Carlsberg Foundation “Semper Ardens” Researcher, Ecoinformatics & Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience,  Aarhus University, DenmarkEarth’s climate has varied dramatically in the past, within ongoing cooling during the last 30 million and strong glacial-interglacial oscillations across the Quaternary (last 2.6 million years) having had strong impacts on biodiversity, e.g., regional extinctions and range shifts. A key question is whether species distributions and local species diversity (s.l.) have been able to track these changes to remain in equilibrium in climate or, if not, how widespread across space and time disequilibrium dynamics have been. Our macroecological work show that long-term (10^4 year or more) climatic disequilibria are widespread across regions and organism groups not only in species distributions and richness, but also sometimes penetrating to functional diversity and ecosystem functioning. These results suggest that we must expect strongly disequilibrial diversity responses to ongoing and future anthropogenic climate change.

Note! The lecture will be streamed and you can watch it live here https://connect.sunet.se/bolincentre. It will also be saved on the Bolin Centre website.

Welcome!

Welcome to the seventh seminar in the new Bolin Centre Seminar Series!
The series aims to provide an opportunity to learn about current research topics in the individual research areas of the Bolin Centre and to bring researchers together on a regular basis. We strive to trigger lively discussions and to facilitate both internal and external collaborations.

The host this time is Research Area 7  Landscape processes and climate

The Forest Cover – Water Yield Debate: Implications for land management  in Ethiopia

Professor Kevin Bishop, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Pro Vice-Chancellor, SLU, Uppsala. Photo: Jenny Svennås-Gillner, SLU“Are forests good for water?” remains a hotly contested scientific question. Despite both its importance and apparent simplicity, we have difficulty knowing enough about how the water regime reacts to land use change to make water-wise decisions regarding the forest management alternatives facing individuals, communities and governments.
 
In the face of global warming and climate change, the preservation and extension of forest cover is likely to play an increasingly important role in the maintenance and improvement of available water supply. But given the complexity of the science, and the scale issues involved when contrasting local management vs. regional and global issues, it is difficult to know how to include water in forest management.
 
Using the situation in Ethiopia as a starting point, the relation between land cover and water over the past half century has been explored using both traditional methods (runoff records, statistical analysis, and change detection modeling), as well as an exploration of community perception.

Speaker: Prof. Kevin Bishop, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Section for Geochemistry and Hydrology, SLU, Uppsala
Time: October 10 at 11h00
Place: Högbomsalen

 

Contact: kristoffer.hylander[at]su.se 

Note! The lecture will be streamed and you can watch it live here https://connect.sunet.se/bolincentre. It will also be saved on the Bolin Centre website.

Welcome!

Welcome to the sixth seminar in the new Bolin Centre Seminar Series!
The series aims to provide an opportunity to learn about current research topics in the individual research areas of the Bolin Centre and to bring researchers together on a regular basis. We strive to trigger lively discussions and to facilitate both internal and external collaborations.

The host this time is Research Area 6 Deep time climate variability

Evolution of climate and biodiversity along the Chilean coast

Speaker: Steffen Kiel, Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm
Time: September 20 at 13h15
Place: Ahlmannsalen

Steffen Kiel, Department of Palaeobiology,  Swedish Museum of Natural History, StockholmThe Pacific coast of South America experienced numerous dramatic climatic changes during the Cenozoic Era. Mollusks along this coastline provide one of the main exceptions from the latitudinal diversity gradient of decreasing species numbers toward the poles. From 42°S southward, coincident with the onset of the mosaic coastline of the southern Chilean fiordlands, species numbers show a twofold to threefold increase compared to the central Chilean coast. The Neogene and Quaternary fossil record (= since ca. 23 million years ago) of central and southern Chile was used to test hypotheses on the origin of this unusual pattern. Contrary to previous suggestions, no evidence was found for an accumulation of biodiversity since the Eocene, or for the northward spread of Antarctic taxa into southern mid-latitudes. Rather, the data suggest that the mosaic coastline south of 42°S was colonized after the retreat of the glaciers from their marine termini since the later Pleistocene, by taxa that were already present along the Chilean coast.

Contact: margret.steinthorsdottir[at]geo.su.se 

Note! The lecture will be streamed and you can watch it live here https://connect.sunet.se/bolincentre. It will also be saved on the Bolin Centre website.

Welcome!

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Welcome to the fifth seminar in the new Bolin Centre Seminar Series!
The series aims to provide an opportunity to learn about current research topics in the individual research areas of the Bolin Centre and to bring researchers together on a regular basis. We strive to trigger lively discussions and to facilitate both internal and external collaborations.

The host this time is Research Area 5  Historical to millennial climate variability

Do we need to account for ecology to model climate change?

Speaker: Ben Smith, Lund University
Time: May 22 at 13h00–14h00
Place: Ahlmannsalen, Geoscience Building

Terrestrial ecosystems are part of the climate system. Climate-induced changes in vegetation composition, structure, distribution and greenhouse gas exchange feed back to the atmosphere from local to global scales. Current regional and global climate models account for instantaneous biophysical responses of land surface energy and water vapour exchange with the atmosphere. Emerging Earth system models also represent longer-term responses mediated by physiological processes and ecological interactions, but issues remain. Illustrating with simulation results from offline and coupled biosphere-atmosphere simulations with LPJ-GUESS, a second-generation global vegetation-biogeochemistry model, I highlight examples of how ecology – i.e. responses of organisms to a changing physical and biotic environment – influence forcing factors of relevance to climate dynamics globally and within the contrasting bioclimatic contexts of the Arctic and tropics.

Note! The lectures will be streamed and saved on the Bolin Centre website.

Welcome!

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Welcome to the third seminar in the new Bolin Centre Seminar Series!
The series aims to provide an opportunity to learn about current research topics in the individual research areas of the Bolin Centre and to bring researchers together on a regular basis. We strive to trigger lively discussions and to facilitate both internal and external collaborations.

The host this time is Research Area 4 – Biogeo-chemical cycles and climate

"Arctic permafrost ecosystems – Linking observational studies, land surface modeling and atmospheric simulations to gain new insights"

Speaker: Dr. Mathias Goeckede, Max Plank Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany
Time: Wednesday, April 19 at 10h00–11h00
Place: Ahlmannsalen, Geoscience Building

The Arctic permafrost carbon pool is of paramount importance for the global climate system, since high-latitude ecosystems are predicted to be exposed to higher-than-average warming in the future. It does also contain an enormous carbon pool that may lead to a strong positive feedback with climate change. The magnitude of this feedback is still highly uncertain because of the significant gaps in our understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes in permafrost regions. This also is reflected in the over-simplified implementation of permafrost ecosystems in global climate models, leading to poor performances of these models in high latitude regions.

Here, we present results from recent experiments in Northeast Siberia that suggest that hydrology, vegetation and soil thermal regimes dominate the carbon and energy exchange patterns. Through integrating these findings into process models we improved the representation of carbon cycle-climate feedbacks in permafrost ecosystems, which contributes to reduce uncertainties in climate forecast scenarios.

Note! The lectures will be streamed and saved on the Bolin Centre website.

Welcome!

Download flyer

Welcome to the third seminar in the new Bolin Centre Seminar Series!
The series aims to provide an opportunity to learn about current research topics in the individual research areas of the Bolin Centre and to bring researchers together on a regular basis. We strive to trigger lively discussions and to facilitate both internal and external collaborations.

The host this time is Research Area 3: Hydrosphere, Cryosphere and Climate

"Achilles heel" of carbon capture and storage

 

Speaker: Prof. Sigurdur Reynir Gislason, University of Iceland’s Institute of Earth Sciences
Time: March 24 at 13h00–14h00
Place: Ahlmannsalen, Geoscience Building

Given the unprecedented increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its implication for global climate, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the  most promising mitigation options. It is already being demonstrated at a growing number of facilities worldwide.  However, the “Achilles heel” of CCS is its cost and safety. Much of the security risk associated with geologic carbon storage stems from its buoyancy, which can be eradicated by dissolving CO2 into water prior to or during its injection, thus allowing injection into fractured rocks [1]. We have demonstrated the dissolution of CO2 into water during its injection in less than 5 minutes and mineral storage within basalt in two years at 20–50°C at the CarbFix field injection site in SW Iceland [2, 3].

This method requires substantial water, therefore the cost of storing and transporting a tonne of CO2 via the CarbFix method is about twice that of geologic storage via “conventional supercritical” CO2 injection. However, the cost of carbon capture and storage is still dominated worldwide by capture and gas separation [1]. This cost could be lowered by capturing and injecting gas mixtures into rocks as is now being tested at the CarbFix2–Sulfix2 site in SW–Iceland at the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant. Since June 2014 we have injected 8000 tonnes per year of a 60% CO2 and 40% H2S gas mixture, which is dissolved in condensation water from the turbines at 20°C and co–injected with efluent water (60–120°C) into the basaltic rock at 700m depth where the temperature is 250°C.  This injection capacity was doubled mid yer 2016. After about two and a half years of continuous operation, the transmissivity of the injection well is still stable and monitoring data suggests significant mineralisation of the injected gas mixture during this period of injection. This integrated method provides the safe and long-term storage of carbon dioxide and other acid gases at a cost that is significantly lower than the one for conventional CCS metonds [4].

[1] Gislason & Oelkers (2014), Science 344, 373–374.
[2] Sigfússon et al. (2015), International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 37, 213–219
[3] Matter et al., 2016, Science 352, 1312–1314
[4] Gunnarsson et al., 2017 (in review).

Note! The lectures will be streamed and saved on the Bolin Centre website.

Welcome!

Download flyer

Welcome to the second seminar in the new Bolin Centre Seminar Series!
The series aims to provide an opportunity to learn about current research topics in the individual research areas of the Bolin Centre and to bring researchers together on a regular basis. We strive to trigger lively discussions and to facilitate both internal and external collaborations.

The host this time is Research Area 2: Clouds, aerosols, turbulence and climate

Sea spray aerosols and cloud droplet formation

Speaker: Prof. Merete Bilde, Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University
Time: February 27 at 13h00–14h00
Place: Ahlmannsalen, Geoscience Building

Sea spray aerosol is formed by oceanic wave breaking and constitutes a major source of aerosols to the atmosphere. Once emitted sea spray aerosol contributes to the formation of cloud droplets. The role of organic molecules and surfactants in this process is however unclear. This talk addresses the formation and properties of sea spray aerosol and the ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Results from laboratory experiments using artificial as well as real sea water will be presented and discussed.

The lectures will be streamed and saved on the Bolin Centre website.

Welcome!

Did not get the chance to attend this seminar?
Watch it at Bolin Centre youtube Channel!

Welcome to the first seminar in the new Bolin Centre Seminar Series!

The host this time is Research Area 1: Oceans‐atmosphere dynamics and climate

Maintenance of Baroclinicity and Storm Tracks in the North Atlantic

Speaker: Prof. Dr. Thomas Spengler, University of Bergen
Time: January 10 at 13h00–14h00
Place: Ahlmannsalen, Geoscience Building

The lectures will usually be streamed and saved on the Bolin Centre website. However, this time the streaming will kindly be hosted by ACES

Abstract:
The maintenance of baroclinicity along the mid- and high-latitude storm tracks is a matter of ongoing debate. Using an isentropic framework, a novel diagnostic based on the tendency equation for the slope of isentropic surfaces – a measure of the potential for baroclinic development – is presented. The tendency comprises contributions from dynamic processes, latent heat release, radiation, and sub-gridscale turbulence, which incorporates the effect of sensible heat fluxes. A climatology of these tendencies over the North Atlantic is compiled for the winters 2009 and 2010.
It is found that adiabatic tilting flattens the isentropic surfaces, reflecting the action of growing baroclinic cyclones. This tendency is climatologically balanced by the generation of slope by diabatic processes. In the lower troposphere, the most intense diabatic increase of slope is found along the oceanic frontal zone associated with the Gulf Stream and at higher latitudes in the Labrador Sea, the Nordic Seas and the Barents Sea. Latent heat release and sensible heat fluxes both contribute substantially in these regions. A quantitative analysis of cold air outbreaks emphasises their important role for restoring the slope in the lower troposphere over the Gulf Stream region and off the sea-ice edge at high latitudes. In the upper troposphere, latent heat release due to cloud microphysical processes is the dominant mechanism maintaining the slope.

Welcome!

Did not get the chance to attend this seminar?
Watch it at Bolin Centre youtube Channel!

 

Bolin Centre for Climate Research
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