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Atmosphere

Aerosols

Absorption coefficient for urban background air, Stockholm, December 2018

The dataset includes three parallel absorption coefficient measurements by two different types of instruments: one Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) and...

Aerosol and droplet size distributions and concentrations measured during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

Aerosol and droplet size distributions and concentrations were measured by a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (model FSSP-100). The FSSP was installed on...

Aerosol light scattering coefficients and scattering enhancement factors at 26 globally distributed stations 1998⁠ – ⁠2017

This dataset presents the time series of aerosol (total and back) light scattering, and scattering enhancement factors measured with in situ tandem humidified...

Aerosol light scattering properties at Zeppelin Observatory, Svalbard, 1999⁠ – ⁠2016, with back trajectory analysis parameters

The dataset was created to aid the investigation of long-term trends in aerosol light scattering properties using a unique data record of key aerosol optical...

Aerosol optical properties from ten earth system models for the year 2010

This dataset presents the time series of modeled aerosol optical properties (light absorption and extinction) from ten earth system models. The dataset...

Aerosol particle number size distribution data collected during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

Aerosol particle number size distributions in the size range 10⁠ – 921 nm were measured with a custom built differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS)...

Black carbon concentrations and carbon isotope signatures for Delhi, 2011

The dataset includes concentrations, stable carbon isotope signatures (δ¹³C) and radiocarbon signatures of elemental carbon (EC — thermal-optical tracer...

Black carbon concentrations and carbon isotope signatures for three sites in China, January 2013

The dataset includes concentrations, stable carbon isotope signatures (δ¹³C) and radiocarbon signatures of elemental carbon (EC - thermal-optical tracer of...

Black carbon isotope signatures from Himalaya and Tibet

Carbon isotope signatures of Elemental Carbon (EC) from aerosols and snow pits collected in Himalaya and Tibet during 2013/2014.

Concentration of particles larger than 2.5 nm collected during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

The concentration of particles larger than 2.5 nm was measured with an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC). The concentration was corrected for...

Data from a modelling study on the importance of Aitken mode particles for cloud sustenance in the high Arctic

This dataset presents the model output from two large-eddy simulation models. The model simulations were performed with the aim to investigate the importance...

Dual carbon isotope (Δ¹⁴C and δ¹³C) data for Hisar and Manora Peak, northern India

Blank corrected radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope data for the TSP aerosols collected during a winter (Dec, 2004) land campaign at Hisar and Manora Peak,...

Frequent new particle formation over the high Arctic pack ice by enhanced iodine emissions, ancillary data

This dataset contains a collection of ancillary data that were used for the publication Frequent new particle formation over the high Arctic pack ice by...

Mask to identify polluted periods during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

Aerosol and trace gas measurements are strongly affected by the ship exhaust and other human activities (e.g., helicopter flights). Therefore, it is important...

Observation (carbon isotopes) and model data for Arctic black carbon, Tiksi, Russia, April 2012 to March 2014

Data of high-volume total suspended particles (TSP) aerosol samples, measured in Tiksi, Northeast Siberia, Russia. The data cover ~24 months of consecutive...

Profiles of aerosol optical properties measured during CAESAR 2014 at Åre, Sweden

This dataset provides profile measurements of aerosol optical properties (aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficient) using Raman lidar technique. The...

Size distribution of aerosol particles between 2.5 and 920 nm measured during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

The aerosol size distribution was obtained combining measurements from a neutral and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) with a differential mobility particle sizer...

Size distribution of interstitial and total particles between 18 and 660 nm collected during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

The aerosol size distribution was measured with a custom made scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), range 18⁠ – ⁠660 nm. Aerosols are important...

Size distribution of neutral and charged particles smaller than 42 nm collected during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

The size distribution of neutral and charged particles was measured using a neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) instrument. The concentration was...

Size-resolved absorption coefficient of ambient aerosol at Stockholm University, January to February 2019

The data describe the absorption coefficient of ambient aerosol at Stockholm University over a size range. Therefore a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP)...

Submicron aerosol methanesulfonate, iodide, iodate and sulfate data from the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

This dataset contains concentrations (micrograms per meter cubed of air) of anions detected in submicron aerosols collected onboard icebreaker Oden during the...

Ultrafine particle concentration measured during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

The ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration is the concentration of particles having a diameter between 2.5 and 15 nm, it is reported in terms of particle...

Clouds

All-Sky cloud imager data from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

An all-sky cloud imager consists of a polished half-spherical dome mirror with a camera on top looking down. The camera takes images of the dome, which...

Ceilometer backscatter and cloud base height measurements from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

The height to the lowest cloud base, or to more than one cloud base in the case when the lowest cloud layer does not cover the whole sky, was measured by three...

Ceilometer backscatter, cloud base height and cloud fraction data from the Arctic Ocean 2016 expedition

Measurements of cloud base height, cloud fraction and backscatter profiles. The dataset provides rare high quality meteorological observations from sea-ice...

Ceilometer backscatter, cloud base height and cloud fraction data from the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

Measurements of cloud base height, cloud fraction and backscatter profiles. The dataset provides rare high quality meteorological observations from sea-ice...

Ceilometer measurements, FMI, from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

The height to the lowest cloud base, or to more than one cloud base in the case when the lowest cloud layer does not cover the whole sky, was measured by three...

Cloudnet remote sensing retrievals of cloud properties during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

This dataset consists of a range of output products from the Cloudnet algorithm. Cloudnet combines cloud radar, ceilometer, microwave radiometer, and...

Cloudnet remote sensing retrievals of cloud properties from the SWERUS-C3 Arctic Ocean expedition in 2014

This dataset consists of a range of output products from the Cloudnet algorithm. Cloudnet combines cloud radar, ceilometer, microwave radiometer, and...

Meteorological observations during the SWERUS-C3 Arctic Ocean expedition 2014 and colocated regional climate model output

Observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic structure, wind profiles and surface energy budget components from the Eastern Arctic Ocean in July through early...

Millimeter cloud radar Doppler moments measurements from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

Cloud information data was collected using a ship-based vertically pointing millimeter cloud radar (MMCR), which is a Doppler radar at the Ka-band,...

Oden ceilometer cloud data from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

The height to the lowest cloud base, or to more than one cloud base in the case when the lowest cloud layer does not cover the whole sky, was measured by three...

S-band radar data from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

Cloud and precipitation information data was collected using a ship-based vertically pointing Doppler radar at the S-band, adapted to primarily measure...

Temperature

2,000-Year Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction

Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction for the past 2,000 years by combining low-resolution proxies with tree-ring data, using a wavelet transform...

High resolution topoclimate maps over Sweden

High spatial resolution (50 m grain-size) gridded maps of 10 years period (2000-2010) of monthly means, min and max temperature, and a map of Growing Degree...

Late-glacial European summer temperature reconstruction

The dataset provides a compilation of quantitative European summer temperature reconstructions for the late-glacial periods of the Bølling-Allerød...

Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

During the ASCOS expedition the temperatures of the cloud-base, ambient air, and surface were very accurately measured using the Marine-Atmospheric Emitted...

Northern Hemisphere Extratropical 1000-Year Temperature Reconstruction

1000-year temperature reconstruction for the Northern Hemisphere extratropical region (30°N-90°N) by the LOC method. The new LOC method reconstructs the...

Northern Hemisphere Extratropical 2000-Year and 500-Year Temperature Reconstructions

We present two new multi-proxy reconstructions of the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90°N) mean temperature: a two-millennia long reconstruction...

Northern Hemisphere Extra-Tropics 2,000-year Decadal Temperature Reconstruction

Multi-proxy temperature reconstruction for the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere (90–30°N) during the last two millennia based on 30 palaeotemperature...

Radiometer data from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

High resolution (in time and space) vertical profiles of temperature were obtained from a 60GHz scanning microwave radiometer. The radiometer measures the...

Simulated seasonal temperatures 850–2005 for the seven PAGES 2k regions derived from the CESM last millennium ensemble

Simulated surface air temperature data derived from the Last Millennium Ensemble with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.1, for the period AD...

Stockholm Winter/Spring 500-Year Temperature Reconstruction

Historical documentary sources, reflecting different port activities in Stockholm, are used along with the instrumental temperature record to derive a...

Warming stripes — visualisations of annual temperature series from the Nordic countries

Ongoing climate change is a complex problem and communicating it to a general audience often requires short and simple explanations. Warming stripes refer to...

Weather observations

Present weather sensor visibility and precipitation data from the Arctic Ocean 2016 expedition

Measurements of visibility, precipitation type and intensity, and the corresponding World Meteorological Organization (WMO) weather codes. The dataset...

Present weather sensor visibility and precipitation data from the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

Measurements of visibility, precipitation type and intensity, and the corresponding the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) weather codes. The dataset...

Radiosonde data from the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

Atmospheric profile measurements of temperature, humidity, pressure and wind speed from radiosonde (Vaisala RS92) weather balloons. Data also include...

Radiosoundings from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

Radiosoundings were launched every six hours (00, 06, 12 & 18UTC), and additionally before each helicopter flight (if not at one of the normal times), using...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations

Weather observations have been made continuously at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1754. This is one of the world's longest records of...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Air pressure

Data for air pressure at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1756 are provided. Over time, different barometers have been used and measurements...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Air temperature

Data for air temperatures at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1756 are provided. The data are available both with, and without, adjustments...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Barometer observations in original units since 1756

Weather observations have been made continuously at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1754. The dataset provided here contains individual...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Daily mean air temperatures since 1756

Data for daily mean air temperatures at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1756 are provided. Three variants of the data are available: (i)...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Daily mean air temperatures since 1756 (graphics)

Weather observations of several meteorological variables have been made continuously at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1756. As a part of...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Maximum snow depth each winter since 1904/05

This dataset contains observed maximum snow depth in each winter from the winter season 1904/05 through 2018/19 at the old astronomical observatory in...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Monthly mean air temperatures since 1756

Data for monthly mean air temperatures at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm from 1756 until 2019 are provided. The dataset also contains annual...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Observation times since 1756

This dataset provides information about the time points when weather observations were made each day (morning, noon, evening) during 1756⁠⁠ – 2018 at...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Sub-daily cloud amount since 1756

Weather observations have been made continuously at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1754. The dataset provided here contains estimated...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Sub-daily sea level pressure since 1756

Data for sub-daily sea level pressure (SLP) at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm are provided for the period 1756⁠ – 2012. Three SLP...

Stockholm Historical Weather Observations — Thermometer observations since 1756

Weather observations have been made continuously at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1754. The dataset provided here contains individual air...

Tethersonde mean meteorology from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

In-situ boundary-layer meteorological observations were made from the ice using sensors hanging under a tethered balloon which was quasi-continuously winched...

Visibility and present weather observations from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

Visibility data was collected using a Vaisala visibility sensor based on forward scattered laser light deployed on the aft starboard side on the 7th deck of...

Weather data from MISU weather station during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition

Measurements of near-surface wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, shortwave and longwave downwelling radiation, and surface...

Weather data from the MISU weather station during the Arctic Ocean 2016 expedition

Measurements of near-surface wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, shortwave and longwave downwelling radiation, and surface...

Weather data from the MISU weather station during the SWERUS-C3 Arctic Ocean expedition in 2014

Measurements of near-surface wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, shortwave and longwave downwelling radiation, and surface...

Weather data from WeatherPak station from the high-Arctic ASCOS expedition 2008

The WeatherPak station is an integrated unit mounted approximately mid-ship on the forward railing on the Icebreaker Oden's 7th deck about 27 m above sea...

Lacustrine

Sediment cores

Lateglacial and early Holocene environmental changes from Lake Medvedevskoye, Russia

Lithostratigraphy, mineral magnetics, radiocarbon dates, diatom counts, pollen counts, percentages and concentrations for the lacustrine sediment sequence of...

Lateglacial and early Holocene multi-core and multi-proxy data set for the ancient lake at Hässeldala Port, southern Sweden

Complete multi-proxy data set for cores #1 to cores #6 from Hässeldala Port, southern Sweden (63 m a.s.l.) including: Lithostratigraphy, geochemistry, tephra,...

Lateglacial and early Holocene multi-proxy data set for the ancient lake at Atteköpsmosse, southern Sweden

Lithostratigraphy, tephra, geochemistry, biomarkers, hydrogen isotopes, radiocarbon dates, age model, chironomid counts and percentages, pollen counts and...

Lateglacial and early Holocene paleoenvironmental change data from Lake Pastorskoye, Russia

Lithostratigraphy, radiocarbon dates, pollen counts, percentages and concentrations for the lacustrine sediment sequence of Lake Pastorskoye, Karelian Isthmus,...

Lateglacial and early Holocene paleoenvironmental changes from ancient Lake Steregoiu, Romania

Lithostratigraphy, mineral magnetic measurements, loss-on-ignition and radiocarbon dates for the lacustrine sediment sequence of the ancient Lake Steregoiu in...

Lateglacial and Holocene paleoenvironmental change data from ancient Lake Preluca Tiganului, Romania

Lithostratigraphy, mineral magnetic measurements, loss-on-ignition, and radiocarbon dates for the lacustrine sediment sequence of the ancient Lake Preluca...

Lateglacial and Holocene paleoenvironmental change data from Lake Pichozero, Russia

Lithostratigraphy, mineral magnetic measurements, geochemistry, grain size, pollen, together with radiocarbon dates for the lacustrine sediment and peat bog...

Multi-proxy dataset from Les Échets, France

¹⁴C dates, OSL dates, mineral magnetic, grain size, geochemistry, pollen and diatom data for the lacustrine sediment sequence of Les Échets in France...

Multi-proxy record from Lake Pa Kho of Late Holocene climatic and environmental changes in northern Thailand

Lithostratigraphy, radiocarbon dates, age model, geochemistry, biogenic silica, major elements, biomarkers of a peat sequence from Lake Pa Kho in northern...

Paleoenvironmental data from Lake Chilau, southern Mozambique, inferring savanna and lake level dynamics in the last 7700 years

This data set contains proxy data from a paleoenvironment reconstruction study covering the last 7700 years in southern Mozambique, derived from fossil...

Marine

Arctic carbon

Biomarker and bulk organic carbon data for surface sediments across the Laptev Sea

This dataset was compiled for a study that aims to assess the fate of terrestrial organic carbon in the Arctic marine environment by exploring how it changes...

Bulk organic carbon and biomarker data for the marine sediment core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1, Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean

This dataset was created to reconstruct the historical remobilization of permafrost carbon from the Beringian landmass to the Chukchi Sea. We analyzed carbon...

Bulk organic carbon, isotopes and mineral surface area for surface sediments across the Laptev and East Siberian Sea

This dataset was compiled to quantify degradation of terrigenous organic carbon in surface sediments across the Laptev and East Siberian Sea. It includes raw...

Bulk organic carbon, isotopes and terrigenous biomarkers for the marine sediment core SWERUS-L2-31-PC1

This dataset contains biochemical data analyzed in the sediment core SWERUS-L2-31-PC1, an archive spanning over the past 27,000 years recovered from the...

Centennial-scale sediment records of organic matter supply and degradation status from the East Siberian Sea

Bulk properties (organic carbon content, nitrogen content, mineral surface area, stable and radiocarbon isotopes), as well as biomarker concentrations (lignin...

Cross-shelf transport time and degradation rates for terrestrial organic matter in the Laptev Sea

This dataset contains compound-specific radiocarbon dates for long-chain fatty acids (specific terrestrial biomarkers) along a 600-km transect from the Lena...

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and its optical properties in the Laptev and East Siberian Seas 2003–2011

This dataset was compiled for a study that aims to assess spatial and interannual distributions of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the Laptev and East...

Lithology and thermal data from subsea permafrost drillcores of the SE Laptev Sea

Lithology and thermal data from four drill cores used in a study that documents current rates and mechanisms of subsea permafrost degradation in the East...

Organic carbon data from the Eurasian Arctic Shelf

Percentage of permafrost organic carbon resequestered by iron oxides in the Eurasian Arctic Shelf. Overall, the 15 ± 5% in the Laptev Sea and 6.4 ± 5% in...

Seawater Carbonate System, Ocean Acidification and Related Parameters in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf Seas

This dataset builds on an order of magnitude more observations than reports to date on Ocean Acidification (OA) in the Arctic Ocean; and, for the first time in...

Bathymetry

Calculated seafloor ruggedness index (TRI) of the Baltic Sea

Terrain ruggedness index (TRI) of the Baltic Sea floor calculated using the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) 2019 bathymetric grid as a...

High-resolution bathymetry from the Ryder 2019 expedition to Northwest Greenland

Multibeam bathymetry from coastal waters along Northwestern Greenland, from Thule in the south to Sherard Osborn Fjord in the north. More specifically, mapped...

International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) Version 3.0

The goal of this initiative is to develop a digital data base that contains all available bathymetric data north of 64° North, for use by mapmakers,...

Multibeam bathymetry from Fifång Deep and Asköfjärden, southern Stockholm archipelago

Multibeam bathymetry collected from Asköfjärden and Fifång Deep, east of Askö Island in southern Stockholm archipelago. Detailed information about the...

Multibeam bathymetry from southeast of Tvärminne Zoological Station in southern Finland archipelago

Multibeam bathymetry showing submarine terraces in the seafloor southeast of Tvärminne Zoological Station in southern Finland archipelago. Detailed...

Multibeam bathymetry from the Petermann Fjord and adjacent Hall Basin, Northwest Greenland

Multibeam bathymetry from Petermann Fjord and adjacent Hall Basin, Northwest Greenland, collected with Swedish icebreaker Oden. The multibeam mapping was...

Multibeam fieldsheets for the SAT0809 expeditions 2008–2009

Multibeam fieldsheets for the Sea Acceptance Test 2008 and 2009 expeditions.

Sediment cores

Age model and physical properties of sediment from the Arctic Siberian margin, core SWERUS-L2-31PC

Age model and sedimentological data for a marine sediment core collected on the Lomonosov Ridge adjoining the East Siberian shelf, Arctic Ocean. The dataset...

Amino acid racemization data from the Yermak Plateau, Arctic Ocean, 0⁠ – 227 ka

The dataset contains data on the extent of racemization and concentration of amino acids in well-dated foraminifera samples (0⁠ – 227 ka) from the...

Bulk sediment records from ODP Site 851, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

The data comprise coarse fraction concentrations, carbonate content and carbon and oxygen stable isotopes (δ¹³C and δ¹⁸O) of deep-sea sediment samples...

Data from IODP Site U1338 and DSDP Site 573

Data comprise bulk and fine fraction C and O stable isotopes, carbonate content, coarse fraction content, age and depths of samples from IODP Site U1338 and...

In-situ Temperature, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flow of East Siberian Margin Sediments

Summary of published data used to calculate marine heat flow at sediment coring stations on SWERUS-C3-L2 in 2014. The data file includes A.) Summary table of...

Marine sediment core data from Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean, core SWERUS-L2-2-PC1

Data from sediment core SWERUS-L2-2-PC1. The core was collected during the SWERUS-C3 expedition with icebreaker Oden 2014. Core length: 8.2 m. Coring site:...

Marine sediment core data from Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean, core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1

Data from sediment core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1. The core was collected during the SWERUS-C3 expedition with icebreaker Oden 2014. Core length: 6.1 m. Coring site:...

Marine sediment core data from De Long Trough, Siberian margin and slope, Arctic Ocean

Sediment core data from four sites in the East Siberian Sea, Arctic Ocean. The cores were collected during the SWERUS-C3 expedition with icebreaker Oden 2014....

Marine sediment core data from the Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland, Arctic Ocean

Sedimentological data from six marine sediment cores collected from the Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean. The sediment cores were collected on two separate...

North Atlantic Eocene Oligocene foraminiferal stable isotope and Mg/Ca proxy data

Benthic and planktic foraminifera oxygen and carbon stable isotope measurements from four North Atlantic deep sea drill sites from the late Eocene to early...

The 3.6 ka Aniakchak tephra in marine sediments from the Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean

The eruption of the Alaskan Aniakchak volcano of 3.6 thousand years ago was one of the largest Holocene eruptions worldwide. The resulting ash is found in...

Terrestrial

Hydrology

Fennoscandian hydroclimate proxies for the last 2000 years

This is a collection of Fennoscandian proxy data based on multi-proxy sedimentary records expected to reflect the moisture and drought conditions on millennial...

Global root zone storage capacity from satellite-based evaporation

This dataset includes global root zone storage capacity (a.k.a., soil water storage capacity) derived from satellite-based evaporation and precipitation data....

Global social-ecological regions with potential for crop production increase with water harvesting

This spatial dataset contains raster files for 6 spatial archetypes representing social-ecological regions — archetypes of water harvesting regions (AWHR)...

Hydro-chemical data of Kilombero Valley

Hydro-chemical and istope data from streams, groundwater and rice paddies. Samples were taken weekly during with the main period covering parts of 2013-2014....

Long-term hydroclimatic data for 22 globally distributed wetlandscape sites

Long-term (1901–2014) annual average hydroclimatic conditions (T, P, ET) for wetlandscapes (catchments with wetland networks) around the world. These sites...

Northern Hemisphere 1,200 Year Hydroclimatic Reconstruction

Comparison of gridded proxy reconstructed and climate model simulated hydroclimate and temperature variability across the Northern Hemisphere over the past...

Numerically modelled transport pathways in degrading permafrost

A numerical model which couples heat and water conservation equations combined with a post-processing routine for particle tracking of water pathways is used...

 

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temperature data Internet of things IoT Iodic acid Ion induced nucleation Ions Iron oxides Islay Isotopes Isotopologues Jämtland Kara Sea Karelia Karelian Isthmus Kilombero Valley LADCP data LGM Lacustrine Lake Lake Medvedevskoye Lake Pastorskoye Lake Pichozero Lake Tarfala Lake Vänern Lake level Lake sediments Lake temperature Land cover Land cover change Land use Landscape Landscape abundances Landscape unit Laptev Sea Large-eddy simulations Large-scale Last 2000 years Last millennium Late Miocene-early Pliocene Lateglacial Les Echets Lidar Light scattering Lignin Limnology Lithostratigraphy Lomonosov Ridge Long-term trend Longwave radiation spectra Loss-on-ignition MAAP MIS2 MIS3 MOCCHA MXD Mackenzie River Manora Peak Mapping Marine Marine Heat Flow Marine chemistry Marine ecosystems Marine geology Marine geophysics Marine sediments Mass absorption cross-section​ Maximum temperature Mean temperature Mercury Meridional overturning circulation Meteorological model data Meteorology 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Radiocarbon Radiocarbon dates Radiosonde Radiosoundings Rating curves Reconstruction Regime shifts Regional climate models Relative humidity Remote sensing Remote sensing of clouds and fogs Reservoir age Respiration Rhizosphere priming Romania Root depth Root distribution Root zone storage capacity Russia Ryder 2019 expedition Ryder Glacier Röån SMPS SWERUS-C3 SWERUS-C3 expedition Salinity Sample depth Sapwood biomass Savanna Scandinavia Scanning mobility particle sizer Scattering coefficient Scattering enhancement factor Scotland Scots pine Sea ice Sea level Seafloor Seafloor morphology Seafloor morphometry Seawater temperature Sediment carbon Sediment cores Sediment properties Sediment size fractions Sediment transport Sedimentology Sediments Seismoacoustic Senseair CO₂ sensor Sequestration Shallow ice Shanghai Ship log Ship navigation Siberia Siliceous microfossil Simrad EK80 Single beam Snow Snow depth Snowball Earth Social-ecological systems Soil Soil organic carbon Solar 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