[{"title":"Stockholm Historical Weather Observations \u2014 Thermometer observations since 1756","summary":"Weather observations of several meteorological variables have been made continuously at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1756. As a part of a collection of data for selected variables, the dataset provided here contains individual air temperature observations for the period 1756\u20132018. The dataset mostly contains between two and five observations per day. All measurements are made in degree Celsius.","citations":"Moberg A, Bergstr\u00f6m H, Ruiz Krigsman J, Svanered O. 2002: Daily air temperature and pressure series for Stockholm (1756\u20131998). Climatic Change 53: 171\u2013212. DOI:10.1023\/A:1014966724670","comments":"The observation site is included in the national station network managed by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), with station number 98210 (manual station) and 98230 (automatic station), but data in the current dataset can differ from those in the SMHI database.\r\n\r\n\r\nThe number of observations each day has changed through time, as follows: \r\n\r\n1756\u20131760: 2 observations (morning and noon)\r\n\r\n1761\u20131858: 3 observations (morning, noon, evening)\r\n\r\n1859\u2013present: 5 observations (morning, noon, evening, min, max).\r\n\r\n\r\nObservation times for all morning, noon and evening observations are provided in a separate dataset.\r\n\r\n\r\nDuring 1756\u20131875, the thermometer was hung in the free air outside a north-facing window on the second floor of the old astronomical observatory building. No detailed description is available for how the thermometer was placed or protected from radiation. \r\n\r\n\r\nDuring 1876\u20131960, the thermometer was placed outside a north-facing window on the first floor of the old astronomical observatory building. A window-screeen was in use since 1878.\r\n\r\n\r\nDuring 1961 to summer 2006, the thermometer was placed in an SMHI (Stevenson-type) screen about ten metres north-east of the former position.\r\n\r\n\r\nIn summer 2006, a platinum resistance thermometer in a modern cylindrical screen close to the SMHI screen replaced the mercury thermometer in the SMHI screen.\r\n\r\n\r\nFrom January 2013 onwards, data are provided separately for both the manual station and the automatic weather station. Although the automatic station records temperature every hour, the current dataset only contains data for the same observation times as for the manual observations for the sake of consistency.\r\n\r\n\r\nOriginal data sources used to produce this dataset:\r\n\r\n1756\u20131858: Handwritten observation journals from the archive of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. \r\n\r\n1859\u20131861: Handwritten observation journals from the archive of the SMHI.\r\n\r\n1862\u20131960: Printed tables in the meteorological year-books \"Meteorologiska Iakttagelser i Sverige\", published by the SMHI or its predecessors. \r\n\r\n1870\u20131899: Handwritten observation journals from the archive of the SMHI (for daily maximum and minimum temperatures only).\r\n\r\n1961\u20132012: Computer files provided by the SMHI through personal contacts.\r\n\r\n2013\u20132018: Data files downloaded from the SMHI resource \u00d6ppna Data, subject to subsequent checking and correction for errors.\r\n\r\n\r\nA small number of individual temperature values in the data files may deviate from the ones given in the handwritten sources, in cases when the latter were judged to be incorrect by Moberg et al. (2002; see section 3.2).\r\n\r\n\r\nThermometer observation data in this dataset are used to derive the corresponding datasets with daily mean air temperatures and monthly mean air temperatures.\r\n\r\n\r\nVersion history:\r\n\r\nIn version 1.0, this dataset is only a part of the entire data collection with Stockholm Historical Weather Observations. There, data is updated to 2017 and provided only as txt files.\r\n\r\nIn version 2.0, this is a separate dataset, updated to 2018, and with data files provided in txt and tsv format.","category":"Atmosphere","subcategory":"Weather observations","keywords":"Air temperature; Daily data; Early instrumental data; Sweden; Stockholm","scientist":"Anders Moberg","firstname":"Anders","lastname":"Moberg","address":"Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University","postalcode":"SE-106 91 ","city":"Stockholm","province":"","country":"Sweden","parameters":"Earth science > Atmosphere > Atmospheric temperature > Surface temperature > Air temperature","location":"Continent > Europe > Northern Europe > Scandinavia > Sweden","progress":"Completed","language":"English","project":"Digitization, quality control and development of daily and monthly air temperature and pressure data series until 1998 was undertaken as part of the project IMPROVE \u2014 Improved Understanding of Past Climatic Variability from Early Daily European Instrumental Sources. Project funding: EU 4th Framework Programme, 1998\u20131999. Contract: ENV4-CT97-0511. Co-ordinator: Dario Camuffo, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Scienze dell'Atmosfera e del Clima, Padova, Italy. PI at Stockholm University: Anders Moberg.","publisher":"Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University","version":"2.0","constrains":"None","access":"Free"}]