Stockholm Historical Weather Observations

Five centuries of reconstructed winter-to-spring temperatures

Historical documentary sources, reflecting different port activities in Stockholm, are used along with the instrumental temperature record to derive a January-April mean temperature reconstruction back to 1502. The documentary sources provide information on when the sailing activities began in each spring and thereby also reflect when the waters became ice-free after each winter. These dates correlate strongly with observed winter/spring temperatures.

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Descriptions of the historical documentary evidence used and how the temperature reconstruction was produced are found in the following publications.

  • Leijonhufvud L, Wilson R, Moberg A, Söderberg J, Retsö D, Söderlind U. 2010: Five centuries of Stockholm winter/spring temperatures reconstructed from documentary evidence and instrumental observations. Climatic Change 101: 109-141
  • Leijonhufvud L, Wilson R, Moberg A, 2008: Documentary data provide evidence of Stockholm average winter to spring temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Holocene 18: 333-343
  • Moberg A, Söderberg J, Leijonhufvud L, Retsö D, Söderlind U. 2008: 500 års väder i Stockholm. Forskning och Framsteg 5, Juli-Aug 2008, 12-17. Read the whole article in Swedish.